CSS Bundling

I prefer to separate the CSS into a CI CD CDN. This is a video for reference. In my opinion, best practice would be to include this with MVP core, global CSS and utilize scoped components that follow guidelines with JIT set to true.

Variables and Rollup

Post CSS, Less, Sass, Manual, Normalize, and Prefixing. Simplified Management. CSS watch and automation. Conditionally manage CSS organization. 

Too many flavors of CSS, too many resets, and conflicting who added style last collisions.

This is a much bigger conversation. Have it at the beginning of the Ideation Process.

Design with Hierarchy

Core CSS/Template

Outline Global “Atomic” Items. Only scope items that need to be inline. Don’t abuse the ability to scope CSS. This can get out of hand really fast.

Set default CSS into Global Native CSS. A non destructive workflow can be a separate updateable single component CSS that will Design with overrides that do not break live/public facing content.

Additional classes can be added to this Atomic List of CSS, with testing.

Use and reference CSS Reset and Normalize Core CSS.

Design with nested, relative box models. Understand Flex, Grid, and Vertical Height restrictions. Utilize overflow and scroll within Panel and Utility view.

  • Position CSS

    • static
    • relative – items are nested and dependent on parent child styling
    • fixed
    • absolute
    • sticky
  • Overflow

    • visible – Default. The overflow is not clipped. The content renders outside the element’s box
    • hidden – The overflow is clipped, and the rest of the content will be invisible
    • scroll – The overflow is clipped, and a scrollbar is added to see the rest of the content
    • auto – Similar to scroll, but it adds scrollbars only when necessary
  • Object Size/Ratio – Avoid Background Images without Accessibility (ALT tags)

    • fill – This is default. The image is resized to fill the given dimension. If necessary, the image will be stretched or squished to fit
    • contain – The image keeps its aspect ratio, but is resized to fit within the given dimension
    • cover – The image keeps its aspect ratio and fills the given dimension. The image will be clipped to fit. Use with relative/overflow sizing parent containers.
    • none – The image is not resized
    • scale-down – the image is scaled down to the smallest version of none or contain
<style>
*! normalize.css v8.0.1 | MIT License | github.com/necolas/normalize.css */

/* Document
   ========================================================================== */

/**
 * 1. Correct the line height in all browsers.
 * 2. Prevent adjustments of font size after orientation changes in iOS.
 */

html {
  line-height: 1.15; /* 1 */
  -webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%; /* 2 */
}

/* Sections
   ========================================================================== */

/**
 * Remove the margin in all browsers.
 */

body {
  margin: 0;
}

/**
 * Render the `main` element consistently in IE.
 */

main {
  display: block;
}

/**
 * Correct the font size and margin on `h1` elements within `section` and
 * `article` contexts in Chrome, Firefox, and Safari.
 */

h1 {
  font-size: 2em;
  margin: 0.67em 0;
}

/* Grouping content
   ========================================================================== */

/**
 * 1. Add the correct box sizing in Firefox.
 * 2. Show the overflow in Edge and IE.
 */

hr {
  box-sizing: content-box; /* 1 */
  height: 0; /* 1 */
  overflow: visible; /* 2 */
}

/**
 * 1. Correct the inheritance and scaling of font size in all browsers.
 * 2. Correct the odd `em` font sizing in all browsers.
 */

pre {
  font-family: monospace, monospace; /* 1 */
  font-size: 1em; /* 2 */
}

/* Text-level semantics
   ========================================================================== */

/**
 * Remove the gray background on active links in IE 10.
 */

a {
  background-color: transparent;
}

/**
 * 1. Remove the bottom border in Chrome 57-
 * 2. Add the correct text decoration in Chrome, Edge, IE, Opera, and Safari.
 */

abbr[title] {
  border-bottom: none; /* 1 */
  text-decoration: underline; /* 2 */
  text-decoration: underline dotted; /* 2 */
}

/**
 * Add the correct font weight in Chrome, Edge, and Safari.
 */

b,
strong {
  font-weight: bolder;
}

/**
 * 1. Correct the inheritance and scaling of font size in all browsers.
 * 2. Correct the odd `em` font sizing in all browsers.
 */

code,
kbd,
samp {
  font-family: monospace, monospace; /* 1 */
  font-size: 1em; /* 2 */
}

/**
 * Add the correct font size in all browsers.
 */

small {
  font-size: 80%;
}

/**
 * Prevent `sub` and `sup` elements from affecting the line height in
 * all browsers.
 */

sub,
sup {
  font-size: 75%;
  line-height: 0;
  position: relative;
  vertical-align: baseline;
}

sub {
  bottom: -0.25em;
}

sup {
  top: -0.5em;
}

/* Embedded content
   ========================================================================== */

/**
 * Remove the border on images inside links in IE 10.
 */

img {
  border-style: none;
}

/* Forms
   ========================================================================== */

/**
 * 1. Change the font styles in all browsers.
 * 2. Remove the margin in Firefox and Safari.
 */

button,
input,
optgroup,
select,
textarea {
  font-family: inherit; /* 1 */
  font-size: 100%; /* 1 */
  line-height: 1.15; /* 1 */
  margin: 0; /* 2 */
}

/**
 * Show the overflow in IE.
 * 1. Show the overflow in Edge.
 */

button,
input { /* 1 */
  overflow: visible;
}

/**
 * Remove the inheritance of text transform in Edge, Firefox, and IE.
 * 1. Remove the inheritance of text transform in Firefox.
 */

button,
select { /* 1 */
  text-transform: none;
}

/**
 * Correct the inability to style clickable types in iOS and Safari.
 */

button,
[type="button"],
[type="reset"],
[type="submit"] {
  -webkit-appearance: button;
}

/**
 * Remove the inner border and padding in Firefox.
 */

button::-moz-focus-inner,
[type="button"]::-moz-focus-inner,
[type="reset"]::-moz-focus-inner,
[type="submit"]::-moz-focus-inner {
  border-style: none;
  padding: 0;
}

/**
 * Restore the focus styles unset by the previous rule.
 */

button:-moz-focusring,
[type="button"]:-moz-focusring,
[type="reset"]:-moz-focusring,
[type="submit"]:-moz-focusring {
  outline: 1px dotted ButtonText;
}

/**
 * Correct the padding in Firefox.
 */

fieldset {
  padding: 0.35em 0.75em 0.625em;
}

/**
 * 1. Correct the text wrapping in Edge and IE.
 * 2. Correct the color inheritance from `fieldset` elements in IE.
 * 3. Remove the padding so developers are not caught out when they zero out
 *    `fieldset` elements in all browsers.
 */

legend {
  box-sizing: border-box; /* 1 */
  color: inherit; /* 2 */
  display: table; /* 1 */
  max-width: 100%; /* 1 */
  padding: 0; /* 3 */
  white-space: normal; /* 1 */
}

/**
 * Add the correct vertical alignment in Chrome, Firefox, and Opera.
 */

progress {
  vertical-align: baseline;
}

/**
 * Remove the default vertical scrollbar in IE 10+.
 */

textarea {
  overflow: auto;
}

/**
 * 1. Add the correct box sizing in IE 10.
 * 2. Remove the padding in IE 10.
 */

[type="checkbox"],
[type="radio"] {
  box-sizing: border-box; /* 1 */
  padding: 0; /* 2 */
}

/**
 * Correct the cursor style of increment and decrement buttons in Chrome.
 */

[type="number"]::-webkit-inner-spin-button,
[type="number"]::-webkit-outer-spin-button {
  height: auto;
}

/**
 * 1. Correct the odd appearance in Chrome and Safari.
 * 2. Correct the outline style in Safari.
 */

[type="search"] {
  -webkit-appearance: textfield; /* 1 */
  outline-offset: -2px; /* 2 */
}

/**
 * Remove the inner padding in Chrome and Safari on macOS.
 */

[type="search"]::-webkit-search-decoration {
  -webkit-appearance: none;
}

/**
 * 1. Correct the inability to style clickable types in iOS and Safari.
 * 2. Change font properties to `inherit` in Safari.
 */

::-webkit-file-upload-button {
  -webkit-appearance: button; /* 1 */
  font: inherit; /* 2 */
}

/* Interactive
   ========================================================================== */

/*
 * Add the correct display in Edge, IE 10+, and Firefox.
 */

details {
  display: block;
}

/*
 * Add the correct display in all browsers.
 */

summary {
  display: list-item;
}

/* Misc
   ========================================================================== */

/**
 * Add the correct display in IE 10+.
 */

template {
  display: none;
}

/**
 * Add the correct display in IE 10.
 */

[hidden] {
  display: none;
}
</style>

Modern CSS

Variables

A lot of design utilizes build process that utilize a lot of smaller components that compile into a bigger CSS output. 

This is very good, if you are working with a small enough team and your organization is able to identify consensus and a naming convention. Compiling a large SASS project takes a lot more coordination. Overrides can be avoided, if the centralized compile can be done iteratively.

Consider vanilla CSS variable structures before multiple components and scoping becomes problematic.

Generate Global Variables with :root element

:root {
  --main-bg-color: brown;
}

.one {
  color: white;
  background-color: var(--main-bg-color);
  margin: 10px;
  width: 50px;
  height: 50px;
  display: inline-block;
}

Utilize fall backs

.two {
  color: var(--my-var, red); /* Red if --my-var is not defined */
}

.three {
  background-color: var(--my-var, var(--my-background, pink)); /* pink if --my-var and --my-background are not defined */
}

.three {
  background-color: var(--my-var, --my-background, pink); /* Invalid: "--my-background, pink" */
}

You don’t need to use a library if your application is simple. Consider using a single semantic style url with Atomic Core Design. You can switch out the header with revised CSS, without breaking your app. 

Compile / Test externally. Upload to non destructive workflows with versioning system.
Keep your Headers in Modular/Publish system. 

One of the advantages of working from a PWA, is that your Native App can pull from live and iterative publish workflow.

I also recommend dividing client side from server side logic and compile. Generate an API and fetch / serve / update with collaborative tools.

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